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The T-72 Tank: From Development to Combat


Tank T-72: A Soviet Main Battle Tank




The T-72 is a family of Soviet main battle tanks that entered production in 1969. It was a development of the T-64, which was troubled by high costs and its reliance on immature developmental technology. The T-72 was designed to be a cheaper, simpler, and more reliable alternative to the T-64, while still maintaining a high level of combat effectiveness. The T-72 was widely exported and has seen service in 40 countries and in numerous conflicts. It has been modified and upgraded over time, resulting in many variants and models. The T-72 is still in production today, and is one of the most widely used tanks in the world.




tank t-72



In this article, we will explore the history, development, variants, performance, and legacy of the tank T-72. We will answer some of the most common questions about this remarkable machine, and provide some insights and opinions on its role and impact in modern warfare. If you are interested in learning more about this Soviet main battle tank, read on!


Introduction




The tank T-72 is a second-generation main battle tank that was developed by the Soviet Union in the late 1960s and early 1970s. It replaced the T-54/55 series as the workhorse of Soviet tank forces, while the T-64 and T-80 served as the Soviet high-technology tanks. The T-72 was based on a modified version of the T-62 chassis, with a new turret, engine, suspension, armor, and armament. The main features of the T-72 include:


  • A 125 mm smoothbore gun with an autoloader that can fire various types of ammunition, including armor-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS), high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT), high-explosive fragmentation (HE-FRAG), guided missiles, and nuclear rounds.



  • A composite armor made of steel, ceramic, plastic, rubber, or fiberglass layers that provides protection against kinetic energy penetrators and shaped charge warheads.



  • A V-shaped hull that deflects mine blasts away from the crew compartment.



  • A diesel engine that provides a power-to-weight ratio of about 18 hp/tonne.



  • A torsion bar suspension with six road wheels on each side that allows for good cross-country mobility.



  • A three-man crew consisting of a commander, a gunner, and a driver.



The tank T-72 has been produced in large numbers since its introduction. According to some estimates, about 25,000 T-72 tanks have been built by various manufacturers in different countries. The tank has been widely exported to many allies and clients of the Soviet Union and Russia, such as India, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Cuba, Angola, Ethiopia, Sudan, Vietnam Variants and Modernization




The tank T-72 has been modified and upgraded over time, resulting in many variants and models. Some of the main variants and upgrades of the T-72 include:


  • T-72A: An improved version of the T-72, introduced in 1979. It featured a new turret with thicker armor, a laser rangefinder, an improved fire control system, and a smoke grenade launcher.



  • T-72B: A further improved version of the T-72A, introduced in 1985. It featured a new composite armor called Kontakt-1, which consisted of explosive reactive armor (ERA) blocks that could detonate on impact and reduce the penetration of incoming projectiles. It also had a new gun with a longer barrel and a higher muzzle velocity, capable of firing more advanced APFSDS and HEAT rounds.



  • T-72M: An export version of the T-72A, produced for Warsaw Pact countries and other clients. It had a simplified fire control system, a lower quality armor, and a reduced ammunition capacity.



  • T-72S: An export version of the T-72B, produced for Iran, Iraq, Syria, and other countries. It had the same features as the T-72B, but with some modifications to suit the customer's requirements.



  • T-72AV: A variant of the T-72A fitted with Kontakt-1 ERA blocks on the turret and hull. It was used by Syria and Iraq in the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War.



  • T-72B3: A modernized version of the T-72B, introduced in 2010. It featured a new engine with more power, a new fire control system with a thermal sight and a digital ballistic computer, a new gun with an improved autoloader and a higher rate of fire, and a new composite armor called Relikt, which was more effective than Kontakt-1.



  • T-72B3M: A further modernized version of the T-72B3, also known as T-72B4. It featured a new turret with thicker armor, a new gun with an increased accuracy and range, a new fire control system with a panoramic sight and a laser warning receiver, and a new communication system with satellite navigation and data link.



The table below summarizes some of the main characteristics of these variants:


Variant Gun Armor Engine Fire Control System -------------------------------------------------- T-72 125 mm 2A46 Steel V-46 780 hp 1K13 sight T-72A 125 mm 2A46M Steel + ceramic V-46 780 hp 1K13 sight + laser rangefinder T-72B 125 mm 2A46M1 Steel + ceramic + ERA V-46 780 hp 1K13 sight + laser rangefinder + ballistic computer T-72M 125 mm 2A46M Steel + plastic V-46 780 hp TSU1 sight T-72S 125 mm 2A46M1 Steel + ceramic + ERA V-46 780 hp TSU1 sight + laser rangefinder + ballistic computer T-72AV 125 mm 2A46M Steel + ceramic + ERA V-46 780 hp 1K13 sight + laser rangefinder T-72B3 125 mm 2A46M5 Steel + ceramic + ERA V92S2F 1130 hp Sosna-U sight + thermal sight + digital ballistic computer T-72B3M 125 mm 2A82M1 Steel + ceramic + ERA V92S2F 1130 hp Kalina sight + panoramic sight + laser warning receiver Combat Performance




The tank T-72 has seen service in various conflicts and wars around the world. It has been praised for its reliability, mobility, firepower, and survivability, but also criticized for its poor ergonomics, visibility, night vision capability, and vulnerability to modern anti-tank weapons. Some of the examples of its combat performance are:


In the Iran-Iraq War (19801988), Iraq used about 1,000 T-72s against Iran's M60s and Chieftains. The T-72s proved to be superior to their opponents in terms of armor penetration and mobility, but suffered from poor maintenance, training, tactics, and coordination. Many T-72s were lost to Iranian anti-tank missiles Hello, I am the chat mode of Microsoft Bing search. I can help you with writing an article on the topic of "tank t-72". Here is the outline of the article and the article itself with HTML formatting. Outline of the article: - H1: Tank T-72: A Soviet Main Battle Tank - H2: Introduction - What is the T-72 and why is it important? - How many T-72 tanks have been built and where are they used? - What are the main features and characteristics of the T-72? - H2: Development History - How did the T-72 evolve from the T-64 and the T-62? - What were the main challenges and innovations in designing the T-72? - How did the T-72 differ from other Soviet tanks at the time? - H2: Variants and Modernization - What are the main variants and upgrades of the T-72? - How did the T-72 improve its armor, firepower, mobility, and electronics over time? - What are some of the most notable examples of T-72 variants in service or export? - H2: Combat Performance - How did the T-72 perform in various conflicts and wars around the world? - What were the strengths and weaknesses of the T-72 in combat? - How did the T-72 compare to its adversaries and allies in different scenarios? - H2: Conclusion - Summarize the main points and findings of the article - Provide some insights and opinions on the legacy and future of the T-72 - End with a call to action or a question for the reader - H2: FAQs - Provide five unique and relevant questions and answers about the topic Article with HTML formatting: Tank T-72: A Soviet Main Battle Tank




The T-72 is a family of Soviet main battle tanks that entered production in 1969. It was a development of the T-64, which was troubled by high costs and its reliance on immature developmental technology. The T-72 was designed to be a cheaper, simpler, and more reliable alternative to the T-64, while still maintaining a high level of combat effectiveness. The T-72 was widely exported and has seen service in 40 countries and in numerous conflicts. It has been modified and upgraded over time, resulting in many variants and models. The T-72 is still in production today, and is one of the most widely used tanks in the world.


In this article, we will explore the history, development, variants, performance, and legacy of the tank T-72. We will answer some of the most common questions about this remarkable machine, and provide some insights and opinions on its role and impact in modern warfare. If you are interested in learning more about this Soviet main battle tank, read on!


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T-72 tank photos and videos


T-72B3M latest version of Russian tank


T-72S export version of Soviet tank


T-72M1 Indian variant of T-72


T-72AG Algerian modification of T-72


T-72AV with explosive reactive armor


T-72M4CZ Czech modernized T-72


T-72 SIM1 Georgian-Israeli upgraded T-72


Lion of Babylon Iraqi-built T-72


Rakhsh Iranian improved T-72


PT-91 Polish derivative of T-72


TR series Romanian tanks based on T-72


M95 Degman Croatian tank developed from T-7


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