Download PDF of Fuels and Combustion by S.P. Sharma: Learn the Basics and Applications of Fuels and Combustion
Fuels and Combustion by S.P. Sharma: A Comprehensive Guide for Engineering Students
Fuels and combustion are two essential topics for engineering students, especially those who are interested in thermal engineering, power engineering, or chemical engineering. Fuels are substances that can release energy by undergoing chemical reactions with oxygen or other oxidizing agents. Combustion is the process of burning fuels in the presence of air or oxygen to produce heat, light, and various products.
The book Fuels and Combustion by S.P. Sharma is a comprehensive guide for engineering students who want to learn about the properties, testing, analysis, and applications of different types of fuels and their combustion processes. The book covers both theoretical and practical aspects of fuels and combustion, with numerous examples, problems, tables, figures, and diagrams. The book also provides relevant information on the environmental impacts, safety issues, and energy efficiency of fuels and combustion systems.
In this article, we will give an overview of the main topics covered in the book Fuels and Combustion by S.P. Sharma. We will also provide some useful links where you can download the PDF version of the book or buy a hard copy online.
Fuels are classified into three main categories based on their physical state: solid fuels, liquid fuels, and gaseous fuels. Each category has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of availability, storage, handling, transportation, cost, performance, and environmental impact.
Classification of fuels
Solid fuels are the oldest and most widely used type of fuels. They include coal, biomass, charcoal, peat, coke, etc. Solid fuels have high calorific value (the amount of heat produced per unit mass or volume of fuel), but they also have high ash content (the non-combustible residue left after burning) and moisture content (the amount of water present in the fuel). Solid fuels require special equipment and methods for combustion, such as grates, stokers, pulverizers, etc.
Liquid fuels are derived from petroleum, coal, biomass, or other sources. They include gasoline, diesel, kerosene, fuel oil, alcohol, biodiesel, etc. Liquid fuels have lower calorific value than solid fuels, but they have lower ash content and moisture content. Liquid fuels are easy to store, transport, and handle, but they are also more expensive and volatile than solid fuels. Liquid fuels require atomization (the process of breaking up the fuel into fine droplets) for combustion.
Gaseous fuels are obtained from natural gas, coal gasification, biomass gasification, or other processes. They include methane, propane, butane, hydrogen, biogas, etc. Gaseous fuels have the lowest calorific value among the three types of fuels, but they have the lowest ash content and moisture content. Gaseous fuels are clean and efficient, but they are also difficult to store and transport. Gaseous fuels require mixing with air or oxygen for combustion.
Properties of fuels
The properties of fuels determine their suitability, quality, and performance for different applications. Some of the important properties of fuels are:
Calorific value is the amount of heat produced per unit mass or volume of fuel when it is completely burned in a standard condition. Calorific value is measured in joules per kilogram (J/kg) or megajoules per cubic meter (MJ/m3) for solid and gaseous fuels, and in kilocalories per kilogram (kcal/kg) or megajoules per liter (MJ/L) for liquid fuels. Calorific value can be divided into two types: higher calorific value (HCV) and lower calorific value (LCV). HCV is the heat produced when the water vapor formed during combustion is condensed to liquid water. LCV is the heat produced when the water vapor formed during combustion is not condensed to liquid water. LCV is always lower than HCV by the amount of latent heat of vaporization of water.
Proximate and ultimate analysis
Proximate analysis is the determination of the percentage composition of a fuel by mass in terms of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash. Moisture is the amount of water present in the fuel. Volatile matter is the amount of combustible gases and vapors that are driven off from the fuel when it is heated in the absence of air. Fixed carbon is the amount of solid carbon that remains after the volatile matter is driven off from the fuel. Ash is the amount of non-combustible residue left after burning the fuel.
Ultimate analysis is the determination of the percentage composition of a fuel by mass in terms of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and ash. Carbon and hydrogen are the main elements that produce heat during combustion. Oxygen is usually present in some fuels as a part of their chemical structure. Nitrogen and sulfur are usually present as impurities in some fuels. Nitrogen and sulfur can cause air pollution and corrosion problems when they are converted to oxides during combustion.
Flammability and ignition temperature
Flammability is the ability of a fuel to catch fire and sustain combustion when exposed to a source of ignition. Flammability depends on factors such as fuel composition, physical state, surface area, vapor pressure, air-fuel ratio, etc.
Ignition temperature is the minimum temperature at which a fuel can ignite spontaneously without any external source of ignition. Ignition temperature varies with different types of fuels and their physical states.
Flash point and fire point
Flash point is the minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off enough vapor to form a flammable mixture with air near its surface. Flash point indicates the volatility and fire risk of a liquid fuel.
Fire point is the minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off enough vapor to sustain combustion when ignited by a flame. Fire point is usually slightly higher than flash point.
Fuel testing and analysis
Fuel testing and analysis are performed to measure the properties and quality of different types of fuels. Some of the common methods and instruments used for fuel testing and analysis are:
A bomb calorimeter is a device used to measure the calorific value of solid or liquid fuels. It consists of a steel vessel (bomb) that contains a known mass of fuel sample and oxygen under high pressure. The bomb is immersed in a known mass 71b2f0854b